Managing Your References, Bibliographies and Citations

What is reference management software?

Reference management software, also known as citation management software, allows you to:

  • collect references
  • store references in a web account or on your desktop
  • organise references
  • add notes to your references
  • link to full text, web pages and documents
  • cite your references and create bibliographies

Some also have additional features such as:

  • sharing your references and collaboration tools
  • PDF highlighting
  • social networking

Link to video tutorial on choosing and using reference management software

Types of referencing style

All styles consist of two parts. The first is the in-text citation, which gives enough information for the reader to find the reference in the second part, the list of references at the end of the document.

Referencing styles fall into three main groups:

  1. Name-date
  • In-text citations consists of the author(s) name and date of publication
  • References listed in alphabetical order of authors surname in reference list
  1. Consecutive numbering
  • In-text citations consists of a number
  • A new number is used each time a reference is cited
  • References listed in numerial order in reference list
  1. Recurrent numbering
  • In-text citations consists of a number
  • If a reference is cited more than once the number is re-used
  • References listed in numerical order in reference list

If you are uncertain which referencing style you should be using contact your department or ask your tutor for advice.

APA Style has been developed for academic institutions by the American Psychological Association, the creator of and authority on APA Style, and features full integration of the APA's best-selling and widely adopted Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

APA Book Citation

There are a few things that must be considered when citing your work under APA guidelines, for example APA in text citation when there is no author or citation for multiple authors. Most often, however, APA citation follows the same basic format:

Contributor. (Date of publication). Title of Work. Publication Information.

The primary contributors to the piece being cited, more often than not the name of the author(s), will be placed just before the publication date and the title of the work. In the event that more than one (but less than eight) authors contributed, the names will be arranged in the same order they are listed on the original source. First and middle initial, and whole surname.


  • One author: Jones, M.L. (Date). Title.
  • Two authors:  Jones, M.L., Smith, K. (Date). Title.
  • Three authors: Jones, M.L., Smith, K., & Carson, T.S. (Date). Title.
  • Eight or more authors: Jones, M.L. , Smith., K., Carson, T.S., Smythe, K., Nicolas, M., …(Date). Title.

Once you’ve noted the contributor information, and the title information, next it is necessary to cite the publication information. The template used will change depending on the type of publication.

For Example:


Smith, K.F. (Date of Publication). Book Title. City, State: Publisher Name.


Smith, K.F. (Date of Publication). Article Title. Magazine Title, Volume, Page(s)

Social media (e.g., Twitter, YouTube, Facebook )

When citing Twitter, Facebook, Google+ (or any other platform) as a whole, and not any information in
particular, it is sufficient to give the URL in the text. No reference list entry is needed.

Specific, retrievable information on social media sites is referenced as follows:


These are easy to cite because Twitter provides all the necessary information—who (Twitter username), when (date), what (title), and where (URL)!


A reference to a YouTube channel follows the usual who (YouTube username), when (date), what (title), and where (URL) format:


Recordings and Presentations

Webinar recordings and training presentations are also available:

  • YouTube Channel  — View APA Style CENTRAL webinar recordings and video tutorials
  • SlideShare— View and download APA Style CENTRAL webinar and conference presentations

IEEE citation style is used primarily for electronics, engineering, telecommunications, computer science, and information technology reports. The three main parts of a reference are as follows: ·

  1. Author’s name listed as first initial of first name, then full last.
  2. Title of article, patent, conference paper, etc., in quotation marks.
  3. Title of journal or book in italics.

For Example:


  • K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of His Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, (only U.S. State), Country: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx.


  • K. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year.


  • K. Author, “Title of report,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Country, Rep. xxx, year.

Theses (B.S., M.S.) and Dissertations (Ph.D.)

  • K. Author, “Title of thesis,” M.S. thesis, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ., Abbrev. State, year.
  • K. Author, “Title of dissertation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ., Abbrev. State, year.

IEEE Editorial Style Manual (PDF, 433KB)

How to Cite References: IEEE Documentation Style

Instead of spending hours in typing bibliographies to organize the references, you can do it - by using EndNote! This software is available in Library. Contact the Library team to get a copy and email at for in-depth training.

Information on using EndNote, with links to resources.:

Use the links belows to see these Videos in high definition. 

Download EndNote X9

Endnote X9 Windows

Endnote X9 IMac

The researchers who are interested to install/activate the EndNote X9 can bring their Laptop to YIC Library during office hours. 


Mendely is a freely available reference manager and academic social network with web-based, desktop and mobile versions.  You can sync your library between these different versions and across different computers.

With a free account you get 2GB of web space and can create 1 private groups with up to 3 users.  You can upgrade to a premium plan if you need more space or groups.

Registration / log in page

Download Mendeley desktop

Collecting references

Mendeley Blog: 7 ways to add documents to Mendeley

Direct Export

  • Some online databases


Bibliographic data from:

  • Online databases
  • Google Scholar
  • SOLO
  • Online pdfs
  • Other library catalogues (e.g. British Library)
  • Webpage snapshots

Offline pdf of full text

  • drag and drop pdf into Mendeley desktop
  • import details from all pdf documents in a folder
  • create a watch folder - a record will be created for any full text pdf added to the folder

Indirect Export

  • From online databases and other reference management software
  • Import files saved as XML, BibTex or RIS.


Please visit Library News and Events page for latest trainings schedule.